Sea Species: Volume 1 of The Evolution River Series

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Examples include desert, rain forest, and tundra. Catchment : The area that drains to a single stream or river. Frequently referred to as a river basin. Synonymous with watershed in North American usage. Collectors : A macroinvertebrate functional feeding group using small organic particles as a primary food source. Filtering collectors accumulate this material from the water column. Gathering collectors accumulate this material from the benthic zone. Discharge : The quantity of water passing a certain river or stream location per unit time.

Expressed as units of volume per unit time e. Feeding guilds : Organisms categorized by their feeding mode. Examples include nectar feeders, and parasites. See functional feeding groups. Functional feeding groups : Feeding guilds of aquatic macroinvertebrates. These include grazers commonly called scrapers , shredders, collectors, and predators.

Grazers : Also called scrapers, a macroinvertebrate functional feeding group that consumes attached periphyton as its primary food source Hyporheic zone : A zone of saturated substrate beneath and spreading laterally from a river bed. It is the zone of active water and organism exchange between the river water and ground water.

Lentic : Referring to standing-water habitats including lakes, ponds, and swamps contrast with lotic. Lotic : Referring to flowing-water habitats including rivers, springs, and streams contrast with lentic. Periphyton : The community of primary producers and heterotrophic microorganisms attached to submerged surfaces. In streams this would include algae, cyanobacteria, bacteria, and fungi and their associated extra-cellular secretions.

Periphyton serves as the food base utilized by grazers. Pool : An area of low gradient water in a stream. See also riffle.

Changes in water volume of the Aral Sea after 1960

Predators : Organisms whose primary food source is other animals. Riffle : A high-gradient bar of deposited substrate, usually spanning the width of a stream. Typically found as part of a riffle-pool repeating sequence in streams of medium gradient. Not to be confused with ripple. Ripple : Small-scale undulations on the surface unconsolidated fine substrates such as silt and sand. These features are shaped by the action of flowing water in low-gradient rivers. Riparian zone : The area of terrestrial habitat adjacent to and most directly influenced by a river or stream.

River Continuum Concept : A model of longitudinal change in physical habitat, and the biological communities in rivers. Shredders : A benthic macroinvertebrate functional feeding group that utilizes leafy detritus as their primary food source. Although the leaves are consumed, nutritional value is derived from the attached community as well as the leaves themselves.

Species-area relationship : The frequently-confirmed observation that as one increases the area from which a community sample is taken, one typically samples an increasing number of species. Species-discharge relationship : An analogous concept to the species-area concept applied to rivers. As river size as measured by discharge increases, one usually finds more fish species. Step pools : A series of stream pools separated by areas of high-gradient water flow.

These pools can be visualized by analogy to the step surfaces on stairs separated by the stair risers that support those steps. Watershed : European usage: the boundary between two catchments; water is shed to one stream on one side of this line and in the opposite direction and to a different stream on the other side. North American usage: a synonym of catchment. Brooks, J.

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Hydraulic microhabitats and the distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages in riffles. Freshwater Biology 50 , Cummins, K.

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Feeding ecology of stream invertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 10 , Downes, B. Habitat structure and invertebrate assemblages on stream stones: A multivariate view from the riffle. Australian Journal of Ecology 20 , Frissell, C. A hierarchical framework for stream habitat classification: Viewing streams in a watershed context. Environmental Management 10 , Gelwick, F.

Longitudinal and temporal comparisons of riffle and pool fish assemblages in a Northeastern Oklahoma Ozark stream. Copeia , Gibert, J.

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Groundwater Ecology: Aquatic Biology. Huet, M. Profiles and biology of Western European streams as related to fish management. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 88 , Hyatt, T. Ecological Applications 11 , Hynes, H. The Ecology of Running Waters. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press, Lake, P.

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Disturbing hard and soft bottom communities: A comparison of marine and freshwater environments. Australian Journal of Ecology 15 , Langeani, F. Riffle and pool fish communities in a large stream of southeastern Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 3 , Lees, A. Conservation value of remnant riparian forest corridors of varying quality for amazonian birds and mammals. Conservation Biology 22 , McGarvey, D. Longitudinal zonation of Pacific Northwest U. McGarvey, D. Scale dependence in the species-discharge relationship for fishes of the southeastern U.

Freshwater Biology 53 , Montgomery, D. Channel-reach morphology in mountain drainage basins. Geological Society of America Bulletin , Nakano, S. Terrestrial-aquatic linkages: Riparian arthropod inputs alter trophic cascades in a stream food web. Ecology 80 , Reciprocal subsidies: Dynamic interdependence between terrestrial and aquatic food webs.

Resh, V. The role of disturbance in stream ecology. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 7 , Schmutz, S. A multi-level concept for fish-based, river-type-specific assessment of ecological integrity. Hydrobiologia , Stanford, J. The hyporheic habitat of river ecosystems. Nature , Thienemann, A.

Stuttgart, Townsend, C. The patch dynamics concept of stream community ecology. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 8 , Vannote, R. The river continuum concept. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science 37 , Global threats to human water security and river biodiversity. Ward, J. Fontain and S. Biodiversity: Towards a unifying theme for river ecology. Freshwater Biology 46 , Wold, A. Effects of salmon carcass decomposition on biofilm growth and wood decomposition.


Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 56 , Introduction to the Basic Drivers of Climate. Terrestrial Biomes. Coral Reefs. Energy Economics in Ecosystems. Biodiversity and Ecosystem Stability. Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Ecosystems Ecology Introduction. Factors Affecting Global Climate.

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